The present review has the aim of summarizing the most relevant studies on the biological basis of sexual development, and in particular, it focuses on the impact of sex hormones and genetic background on the development of sexual differentiation and gender identity.
The echidna X and Y chromosomes are similar except for the fifth pair. From brain determination to testis determination: evolution of the mammalian sex-determining gene. Women atypical sex differentiation of the brain in Bundaberg Rokitansky syndrome who have no womb cannot become pregnant.
X chromosome number causes sex differences in gene expression in adult mouse striatum.
Find articles by Arthur P Arnold. Many of these species rely on temperature sex determination TSD or other mechanisms to guide sexual differentiation of the gonad and possibly the brain. Many individual studies in humans and other primates have found statistically significant sex differences in specific brain structures; however, some studies have found no sex differences, some and meta-analyses have called into question the over-generalization that women and men's brains function differently.
SRY directly regulates the neurotrophin 3 promoter during male sex determination and testis development in rats.
Sexual differentiation of human behavior: Effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones. Evolution of sex determination and the Y chromosome: SRY-related sequences in marsupials. Additionally, little is known about the specific biological activity of sex hormones on brain structures: in particular, further studies should examine the role of androgens and oestrogens brain receptors.
Saraswat A. These species possess additional copies of Cbx2which acts upstream of Sry Kuroiwa et al.
Hahn A. Indeed, cismen and ciswomen present anatomical differences in the total brain volume, as well as in several sex-dimorphic structures. Wu, J. This evidence is also supported by the data from studies on hormonal treatment of transgender persons: indeed, a little but promising group of longitudinal studies also demonstrated the brain plasticity in response to cross-sex hormonal treatment in adult life.