But, empirical evidence is needed to test most of the paths in the figure; most extant data concern simple links between behavior and prenatal androgens or gendered socialization. Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods.
Importantly, most methods relying on indirect indicators of prenatal hormones create more confusion than clarification. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Sex differences in brain and behavioral development.
During this phase, the following events occur: The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced by the brain. Hampson E, Rovet JF. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1.
Brain activation patterns during cognitive and affective tasks were also examined in relation to prenatal androgens in natural experiments and a typical sample, with most using functional MRI. Age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: Developmental windows of expression?
Child Development. Anogenital distance plasticity in adulthood: Implications for its use as a biomarker of fetal androgen action. Corresponding author: Sheri A. The female reproductive anatomy includes both external and internal structures. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where the uterine lining has thickened in response to the normal hormones of the reproductive cycle.
Advances will likely come from studying neural systems underlying sex-related behavior and likely to be influenced by androgens, and directly linking brain measures to behavior. Conflict of Interest Nothing declared.
Sex differences in brain and behavioral development. Other studies linking androgens to brain activation were not as clear. Most promising, research has moved from asking whether hormones influence human behavior to asking how they do so.